For minor rust, sandpaper will effectively remove rust.
Heavy rust requires the use of power equipment that tears the rust away from the surface, exposing bare metal. Sandblasting forces large amounts of sand against the metal surface, breaking down the rust and some metal into fine particles that separate from the surface. Sand blasting is an effective process, but takes experience and specialized equipment. Additionally, if the metal is not primed immediately after sandblasting, rust will readily form on the porous metal surface.